Being essentially cut off from the global scientific community, Ukrainian and Russian scientists have developed a new concept for the beneficial use of adaptation to artificial intermittent hypoxia in treating of many diseases. The basic mechanisms underlying intermittent hypoxic training were elaborated mainly in three areas: regulation of respiration, free radical production and mitochondrial respiration. Twenty-year experience of the application of intermittent hypoxic therapy for the treatment of chronic obstructive bronchitis and bronchial asthma allows affirming that the adaptation to this kind of hypoxia causes a significant improvement of the clinical picture or even a complete recovery. The absence of negative side effects, typically observed during drug therapy, and the stimulation of organism's general, nonspecific resistance, makes the hypoxic therapy a treatment with a future. A special note is devoted to the use of intermittent hypoxic training in industrial health care for the purpose of prophylaxis and treatment of professional diseases.